Thomas Craig of Riccarton

A poetic farewell to the most serene Prince of the British Isles, Henry, as he leaves Scotland

The second in the trio of poems that Craig published to commemorate the accession of James VI to the English throne (for further details, see introduction to d1_CraT_002), this propempticon (a 'poem of farewell' given to the recipient on their departure) was addressed to Prince Henry (b.1594), who until his sudden and tragic death in 1612 was James' heir. Craig laments Henry's departure from Scotland in the first half of the text, while the second gives Henry advice on how to govern as a good king which echoes that given in d1_CraT_001 and d1_CraT_002 - indeed, while reaffirming similar concepts in different poetic settings, Craig redeploys whole lines and passages from earlier poetry throughout his corpus. This was a familiar literary practice in the Classical canon, and a recurring feature of Craig's poetry (see our November 2014 feature [../../research-articles/display/?fid=ThomasCraig2] for Craig's judicious re-use of, and allusive engagement with his own work). A synopsis of the text is given in Tyler, An Account of the Life and Writings of Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton, pp. 188-193. Metre: hexameter.

[241]

Ad Serenissimum Britanniarum Principem Henricum, e Scotia discedentem, Propempticon

1Multa rapit mentes hominum admiratio, cum tot
Saxonidum vates in publica gaudia certent
Aonio doctas deducere monte sorores, 1
ecquae nostrates tam segnis inertia cepit,
5ut neque Pieridum sacros tentare recessus,
artificesve manus plectro componere curent.
An gelidus torpet circum praecordia sanguis? 2
At non virginibus sacris gens gratior ulla
ante fuit, nec quae Phoebo mage digna canebat.
10An Musas odere? Et mens absentibus omnis
cum dominis amissa abiit? Fallaxque priorem
cum vultu Fortuna fidem mentita novavit?

Scilicet, hinc hodie vatum alta silentia surgunt,
dum sua rapta sibi taciti solatia lugent.
15Ille hominum longe primus, quo vate Lepanti 3
innumeris stratum est Turcarum caedibus aequor,
qui prius assuerat validas in carmina vires 4
sufficere, et nostris animos accendere Musis,
immemor Arcadiae veteris, gelidique Lycaei,
20deseruit sedes (sic Di voluere) priores.
Sic sacer ille Helicon priscis exaruit antris,
et nos saeva premunt manifestis numina causis.
Nec tantum usis, quantum servire dolori
cogimur, et tenebris nigrescere cuncta 5 videmus.
25Et miramur adhuc segnes in carmina Musas?
Carmina cum tantum ex animo nascantur amoeno.

En nos hic alter Solis defectus obumbrat,
iamque premunt gemina privatos luce tenebrae.
Ecce Calidoniae decus, et spes altera gentis 6
30eripitur nobis, et nocte obnubimur atra.
Quo meriti hanc poenam facto? Quo Numine laeso? 7
Scilicet is labor est, ne te pulcherrime rerum 8
quae genuit tellus posthaec praesente fruatur?
Testatur Divos, et caeli vota, relinquet

[242]

35non meritam. Cur sic oculo privetur utroque?
Saltem si qua manet propriae tibi cura salutis,
hos abitus prudens in indonea tempora differ.
Torrida jam regnant duo sidera, Cancer adustus
laetiferis 9 aperit (viden) ut sua brachia morbis? 10
40Et ferus insequitur rabioso Syrius aestu:
et tenera est aetas, durisque laboribus impar.
Nec mora parva nocet, annum non amplius unum
poscimus: accedat donec robustior aetas,
dum doceat victos tristis fortuna dolere. 11
45Ardua res magnum subito deponere amorem. 12

Nosne fugis? Patriaeque ferunt te taedia sedis?
Per lachrymas nostras, per qui genuere parentes,
si precibus locus est, 13 nec adhuc Deus obstruit aures, 14
parce fugae, et dulces patriae ne sperne recessus.
50Hic etiam juvenes, qui cursu, atque alite planta,
qui jaculo et lucta tecum contendere possunt.
Aut si delectent animosa pericula, 15 sunt hic
qui tecum sylvas cane multo, et lustra ferarum
insidiis, cursuque, et longa indagine cingent. 16
55Qui te per montes, quaque est via nulla, sequentur 17
venando, et valles tecum saltusque fatigent.
Denique qui Musis tecum communibus uti,
et socias soliti discendo jungere curas.
Ocyor est cursus, quoties certatur, equorum,
60tum demum crescit, quoties venit aemula virtus.

Quod si debuerant paribus nunc legibus ambae
invictae gentes aeterno foedere jungi; 18
dura rudimenta, et primordia sensimus hujus
foederis, haud haec ex aequo conjunctio facta est,
65vicini ut teneant communia gaudia soli,
nos miseri in luctus tantum et lamenta relicti.
Si vultum saltem Domini communis utrisque
invideant: aditusque sacros, praesentiaque ora,
et soli cupiunt partes tenuisse priores,
70debuerant nobis non invidisse secundas.

Ille oculus mundi, 19 certo qui foedere lucis,
undique cum terris immensum purpurat aequor, 20
uno eodemque Helicen anno gelidosque Triones

[243]

visit, et hinc rursus pluvios deflectit in Austros: 21
75aequus utrique polo, medium nec deserit unquam
certus iter, vergit qua obliquo Signifer axe:
nec plus huic parti lucis, quam dividit illi,
vitalemque pari metitur lance calorem. 22
Quod rectum, 23 ex aequo Phoebus partitur utrisque.

80Quod si jussa premunt magni genitoris, et omnes
eripuere moras, nec fas jam tendere contra,
at liceat lachrymis saltem vestigia fusis
implere, et sparsos abeunti exponere crines:
et domini memores oculis effundere fletus. 24
85Non lachrymis vincet Veneri ploratus Adonis. 25
Sed lachrymis tristes nuncquam saturantur amores.

Haec saltem ad patrias defer non immemor aures:
prima puer certo hic fixit vestigia gressu, 26
Palladis hic etiam studiis operata juventa
90implevit veris spatiosum laudibus orbem.
Hic illum, postquam accessit maturior aetas,
Aonas in montes doctae duxere Sorores, 27
Castaliosque ipsis latices de fontibus hausit.
Hoc pro tot meritis unum patria alma reposcit:
95visere dignetur sedes aliquando relictas.
Cum redit, et pluvios ubi primum liquerit Austros,
cuncta revertenti occurrunt laetissima Phoebo.
Tu celeres reditus, nec inania tempora 28 sponde.
Nec quid si fallas patriae pietate pericli est.
100Ah miseri! Licuit toties quibus esse beatis,
nec bona sentimus, donec plangamus adempta.

Si tamen ista neget duras dimittere in aures 29
immemor, et saevo mentem non mitior hoste,
si levibus ventis haec, ut ludibria mandet, 30
105illius tu saepe vices pulcherrimus imple.
O desiderium populi commune duobus,
qui Superos forma, formam virtutibus aequas,
sceptrigerosque omnes Reges natalibus ante is:
o solo genitore minor, genitoris imago
110vivida, non speculo reddetur certior ullo;
unius in vultu vultum cernemus utrumque:
et patrius lucet manifesto in sanguine candor.

[244]

Anne tuas etiam obnubent oblivia curas?
Atque novis opibus, patriae fastidia trades?
115Res timida est omnis miser, 31 et mutatur in horas,
facta metus fingit, fieri quae posse putabit.

Multa tibi forsan, postquam perveneris illuc,
quae pronam in reditus possunt avertere mentem;
non raro objicient, 'quam sit tibi barbara tellus,
120aerii montes, nec cinctae moenibus urbes, 32
incultaeque domus, nec mores gentis amoeni:'
ut quae te genuit tellus, tibi sordeat ultro.
Omnia tu rapidis trade ut ludibria ventis. 33
Scilicet, an quae vos tales, natumque patremque,
125tot quibus ingenuae lucent in pectore gemmae,
protulit, haec merito dicetur barbara tellus?
Utque patrem taceam, quem nunc nova gloria pennis
evehit auratis, 34 magni per moenia mundi,
quis tibi vel puero paribus se conferat annis?
130Exigat aut Latiae si quis commercia linguae,
aut si Romanis pangatur epistola verbis,
quis calamo melior, Latii quis doctior oris,
sive tuos aequet, vel fors geminaverit annos?
Canities animi ut puero, sic dulce loquendi
135pondus, et attonitas sermo qui pertrahat aures. 35
Et quanquam arma annis etiam metuenda tenellis,
indolis ipsa suae vivacia semina fundit
natura, et teneros generoso in sanguine mores.
Intrepidus ferri, gladios hostile micantes
140ambit, in armisonae metuenda Palladis ille
Ægide tractaret saevos interritus angues. 36
Nemo manu melior, Martis simulachra ciere,
sive Macedonia vibrabitur arte sarissa,
seu gladios tractet, seu tela micantia ferro.
145Spicula si jaciat, jures Chironis alumnum
stare, omnes doctum feriendi cominus artes.
O quoties, et quot flagrabant pectora votis,
optatas audire tubas, 37 et fulmina belli, 38
quae vomit in muros violenti machina Martis. 39
150Credo equidem, nec vana fides, jam Mulciber ensem
praeparat, et multa sudans incude laborat,

[245]

festinat galeam Brontes, thoraca Pyracmon;
et Steropes clypeum, magni gestamen Achillis. 40
Scilicet ut celsi vigor est dignissimus oris,
155masque animus, saevisque ferox fiducia in armis,
signa aliquando Ducem spondet haec certa futurum.
Ut quoties coget violenti injuria Martis,
vindicibus poenis justas exsurgere in iras,
falce nova messor densas ut sternit aristas; 41
160talis in adversos iratus fulminet hostes.
Haecne, rogo, magnae caelestia semina mentis, 42
hos animos usquam producet barbara tellus?

At Cereris (dicent) parca, atque inimica colono;
nec pecori grata est, nec quae Milesia fundat
165vellera, 43 nec fulvis tellus generosa metallis. 44
Quod si divitiis certent, concedimus ultro.
Non hominum mentes opibus, curaeve levantur; 45
nemo opibus factus melior, sub paupere tecto
reges, et Regum licuit praecurrere amicos. 46
170Sunt et opes nobis, nec adhuc nos poenitet harum.
Luxus abest, absitque diu. Foecunda virorum
credita paupertas. 47 Non defensura calorem
aurea compescunt rapidos umbracula Soles, 48
quaeque viae solitae rhedae mollire labores,
175officiumque pedum subjecto explere cubili.
Luxus inops hominum est, dum toto accersitur orbe,
quo gens quaeque perit, 49 veniensque per aequora victus; 50
et nimia humanas oblimat copia mentes. 51
Terra suis contenta bonis, 52 Cererisque benigna est,
180et pecoris dives nivei, 53 licet undique montes
aerei occurrant, quorum declivia nostri
vomere sollicitant, atque horum asperrima pascunt, 54
non pars humano mollescere nescia cultu, 55
et fulvis quacunque patet foecunda metallis.
185Pectora sunt Latiis, Grajisque habitata Camoenis.
Hic seges illa virum densissima surgit in annos,
et nova succrescit soboles rediviva priori.
Haec res victores, et Martis in arce locatos
attonitos novitate mali, 56 dubiosque futuri,
190fregerat Edwardos, patrem, natum, atque nepotem:

[246]

quos tantis Gallorum aluit Bellona triumphis, 57
cum fuerent in nos armis, et Marte secundo
innumeras secum traherent in praelia gentes.
Sed gravidam bellis terram 58 contendere contra,
195et genus immortale 59 hominum oppugnare videbant.
Nec tantum una acie fundi potuisse cruoris;
quin totidem examen juvenum, qui proximus annus
sufficeret, totidemque manus in bella paratas,
crediderant Cadmi Dircaeis vomere in arvis
200tot subitas acies foeta tellure renatas,
Myrmidonasve satos, aut Colchidos arte veneni,
vipereos dentes, gravidis sobolescere in agris:
armiferi veluti florerent milite sulci,
et seges in proprium jam stringeret arma colonum. 60
205Sic prius innumeris redivivam mortibus hydram, 61
foecundamque suis damnis, crevisse dolebat
Amphitryoniades, geminasque resumere vires, 62
tanquam animos, et opes ferro duxisset ab ipso.
Nempe erat in fatis, non duri pulvere Martis
210iungendas olim has, sed amico foedere gentes.
At tu foelici qui natus sydere utrisque es,
hic aliove loco, teneris adoleveris annis,
si tibi sit bene, si valeas, (utcunque feremus),
si cures, ne te tua sola Britannia noscat:
215si tibi quod sanguis, quod spes, quod publica vota
imperium spondent, meruisse videbere cunctis.
Scin' regnanda Iovi cur celsa palatia caeli
a Gange ad Gades totus transcripserit orbis?
Quem tamen exiguo clausit Minoia Crete
220imperio, et parva morientem condidit urna. 63
Sola illi tribuit terras et sydera virtus,
sceptraque tum soli fuerant virtutis honores.
Sola etenim virtus verum dat in omnia regnum.
Non parit hanc molli surgens ignavia lecto,
225nec quae corrumpit generosas copia mentes.
Sed tu, qua virtus tua te vocat, alite penna 64
carpe iter, et magnis enitere in ardua pennis,
dumque aetas tenera est, Virtutis templa tenella
incipias pulsare manu: fax mentis honestae,

[247]

230gloria, 65 (si facilis monitis assuescere possis)
ducet eo, et famae tandem te sistet in arce.

Interea duro nervos assuesce labori,
et tenerum pectus tolerando praestrue Marti:
utque tibi crudo solidae stent robore vires;
235sub gelido incipias vigiles Iove ducere noctes, 66
ferre famem docilis, facilique avertere victu,
venando montes, fluvios superare natando, 67
delibasse cibos raptis contentus in armis: 68
fama etenim nulli multo sine pulvere venit.

240Sed, dum prima novis adolescit moribus aetas, 69
curandum, ne te secura frangat in aula 70
luxus adumbrati faciem mercatus honoris: 71
ingratum luxus famae, atque ingnobile nomen.
Ut trahit arcano ferrum Magnesia cautes
245imperio, 72 teneras sic rerum copia mentes
fascinat, 73 et vero longe disjungit honesto.
Ante oculos verses Titanidos atria Circes, 74
obscoenis ululata lupis, latrata Molossis,
utque suum suibus, vel si quid turpius usquam est,
250induat in vultus homines ignava voluptas. 75
Talia luxus iners nobis monumenta reliquit.

Fac tecum semper Musae tua cura senescant,
nec pigeat prima coluisse Helicona juventa. 76
Rarus erit, quem fama vetus, quem charta loquuta est,
255quem puerum doctae non limavere Sorores. 77
Alcides, clarum fama per saecula nomen,
dum juvenis, positis clava, spolioque leonis 78
sideraque et coeli motus, Atlante magistro, 79
et quibus hic totus compagibus haereat orbis,
260hauserat, et multa fertur maduisse Minerva.
Non umquam illius vitia allatrantia mentem
quassarunt, corpusve acres vicere labores,
sed vitae placuit tum nobilioris imago.
Pene puer doctus cursu praevertere nimbos,
265et soles, imbresque pati, 80 contemnere frigus. 81
Praeda cibum dederat, solitusque in montibus altis
venando pharetrae pondus consumere in arcus. 82
Non se desidiae assuescens dapibusve paratis, 83

[248]

aut pigra resides sponda deponere curas.
270Non corpus, non mens ulli cessura labori.
Gratius est quicquid duro sudore paratur.

Ille Agamemnonio bello metuendus Achilles,
dum puer Æmonii fertur Chironis in antro,
quid deceat, quid non, quid fas didicisse, quid aequum,
275semiferique sequi facilis praecepta docentis,
sive lyrae cantus, medicas seu traderet artes. 84
Saepe etiam tetrici correptus voce magistri
horrebat, nubem frontis veneratus, et illam
invictam dextram, qua maximus occidit Hector; 85
280subduxit nuncquam ferulae, submittere jussus.
At postquam virtus annis adoleverat; idem
Maeonio in laudes solus suffecit Homero.

Pellaei juvenis primos formaverat annos
magnus Aristoteles, facibusque ardentibus omnem
285accendit juvenem, et generoso implevit honesto,
quid fas quidque nefas, quo virtus, quo ferat error,
quo ducit molli nutrita ignavia lecto, 86
tradidit, instillans teneris meditanda sub annis.
Longe illi, digitos vivis incendere gemmis,
290longe illi, Phrygia pictae muliebriter arte
vestis odoratae studium, doctusque profundi
in nemoris dorso fugientes carpere somnos. 87
Non minus omne illud, quod Sol utrinque recurrens
aspicit imperium, 88 potuit meruisse videri.
295Maluit ille armis, postquam corruptior aetas
persuasit, patrios opibus submittere mores.
Tum sacrae virtutis honos emarcuit, irae
dum nunc praeda suae est, nunc blanda praeda Lyaeo,
ebrius imperium tandem cum luce reliquit,
300et Macedum retro sublapsa potentia cessit.

Scipiades, Lybicae victor qui nomina gentis
induit, Aoniis conjunxerat artibus arma:
sive manu valida Poenum prosterneret hostem;
sive triumphanti ascendit Capitolia curru,
305Ennius haerebat lateri comes unus, et acri
accendit juvenem famae venientis amore. 89
Subdidit ille ultro stimulos, blandumque venenum

[249]

desidiae ex animo, et curas avertit inertes. 90
Illum haud dedecuit vestis neglectior usus,
310non faciles epulae mensis, non masculus horror.
Gratior est multo quae fama labore parata est.

Caesar ut incertum Musisne an clarior armis,
sic certum est, ut in his fuerat, sic primus in illis,
culmen utrumque tenens, 91 teneris tamen ille sub annis
315fingenda Aoniis submisit pectora Musis.
Interea addiscens, quae faelix area Marti,
quis locus insidiis, aciebus idoneus esset,
quis castris, quando faciendae copia pugnae;
sobrius accessit, quicquid suscepit agendum.
320At nisi se primo studiis melioribus aevo
ornasset, Latio Dominas in honore sorores
non septemgeminus Nilus, non Rhenus et Ister,
non Ganges, non occiduus sensisset Iberus,
nec foret ullum hodie tanto de Caesare nomen,
325ille licet Solis famam jam terminet astris. 92

Caetera Caesareae nec pace nec utilis armis
pene domus series, dum laxat in otia curas, 93
ingratum terris nomen caeloque reliquit,
imperiumque tenens curarum ignara voluptas,
330et magnae nil laudis agens, subsidere coepit:
pondera Trajanus donec ruitura subisset, 94
Plutarchi instructus monitis, curaque fideli,
et prisci Ausoniis sub eo rediere triumphi.
Ille alta invectus caesis Capitolia Dacis;
335vinidicibus sternens Parthos fortissimus armis,
ut Romana foret, fecit, provincia, Tygris; 95
et domito adjecit quicquid tum defuit orbi. 96

Quod si exempla placent, vitaeque imitamina magne
sunt cognata tibi, atque aeternae nomina famae,
340quosque imitere domi, occurrent Regesque Ducesque,
quos legere, et quae sit poteris cognoscere virtus. 97
Hinc pete, dum primi surgunt tibi leniter anni,
quos fugias prudens, et quos virtute sequaris,
et magna accendat proavorum gloria mentem.
345Tempora sollicitos spondent ventura labores,
nec pigro licet esse tibi, sudavit et alsit 98

[250]

non semel, in summa famae qui constitit arce.
Per salebras iter est, 99 via quae fert invia, multi
anfractus, variis fallens ambagibus error,
350longa catenatis ducit via secta periclis,
difficiles aditus, dextra laevaque 100 labores,
taedia, et insomnes posuere cubilia curae. 101
Ne facili credas palmam sudore parandam,
cum gravia incumbent onerosi pondera regni,
355cum rerum commissus apex. 102 Surgentibus annis
praecipue cures, moles quid publica poscat, 103
quidque humili prosit meditando exquirere plebi:
quae furiare solent, saevasque accendere in iras.
Area virtutis longe est clarissima Regi,
360commoda si curet populi, vitetque quod obsit.
Quid valeant humeri, ut verset, quid ferre recusent, 104
ne gravior, ne forte suis onerosior aequo,
nam bene fert, sua qui prudens bene pondere librat.

Sancta fides verbis, nec pervia pectora fraudi,
365nec veniae durus, (suberit si causa) nec ulli
difficilis, nisi qui sceleris sibi fecerit usum.
Infirmum imperium est, quod non clementia firmat. 105
Non avidas falsis praebe rumoribus aures, 106
non facilem inveniat delator perfidus aulam.
370Inde parens odii surgit metus, 107 exitiale
saepe malum, et custos regnorum pessimus idem:
quippe tot ut metuas, a quot metuere necesse est.
Nec metuet, quisquis de se bene senserit unquam.
Sed melius longe rerum moderabere habenas
375exemplo, quam vel vinclis, vel legibus ullis,
si Dominus potes esse tui, tibi regula vitae,
si docti valeant legem sibi dicere mores. 108
Iratus si forte, aut si juvenile calebis,
consilio tum fac tua stet minor ira fideli.
380Sic Domini populus se moribus induet ultro,
spectabunt in te, quid fas, quid dedecet uno.
Tum sine fasce pudor populum, sine vindice honestum
diriget, et vitae referet melioris in usus. 109
Ipse tui judex incorruptissimus a te
385exigere haud cesses, humili quae in plebe requiris.

[251]

Et jussos aliis primus decurre labores.
Peccandi studium tollat permissa potestas, 110
et sceleri nuncquam imperii praetenderis umbram:
sed tabulas semper meritorum crede fideles
390esse hominum mentes, et conscia pectora veri.
Haec quoties cernent gentes ubicunque remotae,
sponte tuum imperium et nullo cogente subibunt.
Sola etenim virtus cunctis violentior armis. 111
Prima tamen (nec te pigeat) sit cura fovere
395praecones verbi divina voce tonantes,
quique arcana Dei populo mandata recludunt,
ut nec inops virtus tibi sit, nec inertia dives:
et vera incipias laudem pietate mereri.

Sic bonus ille Deum genitor, 112 flammantia caeli
400templa colens, 113 terras qui fecit, et aequora, faxit
invidiae ut fines major virtute relinquas,
ut priscae titulos possis transcendere famae,
vatibus in laudes ut sis satis omnibus unus,
regnaque subjicias meritis tibi maxima solis:
405et famulas ubicunque manus submittere coges,
sitque assueta tuis semper victoria castris.
Ut neque ter Pyliae superes si tempora vitae, 114
vel pacis te unquam, vel belli taedia carpant:
409sed te omnes vivae ut speciem virtutis adorent.

[241]

A poetic farewell to the most serene Prince of the British Isles, Henry, as he leaves Scotland

1Much admiration has taken hold of the minds of men, and although so many Saxon poets combat in public festivals to entice the learned sisters down from Mount Helicon, such an indolent lethargy has taken hold of our own people that they have no inclination to either disturb the sacred caves of the Muses, or turn their artistic hands to the plectrum. Perhaps ice-cold blood stiffens around our hearts? Yet before there was no other nation more pleasing to the sacred virgins, and no other nation more worthy of Phoebus used to sing. Perhaps they hate the Muses, and this impulse has been completely lost, having departed without the presence of their lords? And perhaps Fortune deceitfully affected her previous stability and feigned it on her face?

13As is evident, a profound silence from our poets occurs all around us today, as they silently lament that their comfort has been snatched from them. That most pre-eminent of men, in whose poem on Lepanto the sea was strewn with the innumerable slaughtered corpses of the Turks, and who had previously used to supply strong impetus for composition, a and to fire the spirits in our songs, he forgot his ancient Arcadia and icy Lyceum, b and he left behind his former home (as the gods willed it). Consequently sacred Helicon has run dry in its ancient grottoes, and the fierce divine authorities harry us with good reason. And we are not compelled so much to serve our Muses as serve our grief, and we witness everything growing dark in the shades. And yet we still wonder that our Muses are slow to compose poems, when poems are only born from a happy spirit?

27See how another eclipse of the sun covers us in shade, and how darkness now oppresses us and deprives us of our twin light. See how the ornament of Caledonia, the second hope for our nation is torn from us, and we are shrouded in black night. What deed have we committed to merit this punishment? What deity has been slighted? Surely it is a hardship that the land which gave you birth, most beautiful of our produce, will not hereafter enjoy your presence? The country swears by the gods and by our prayers to heaven: he will leave behind

[242]

an ill-rewarded country. Why is it now deprived of each eye in this way? At least, should any concern for our health still remain for you, be prudent and hold off your departure till a more reasonable time. The two torrid constellations now hold sway: look, do you not see how parched Cancer opens its arms to death-bearing disease? Also fierce Sirius follows hard upon with its raging heat: and your age is too young, and unfit for harsh undertakings. A brief delay will do no harm; we ask for no more than a year - at least until the age of your increased strength comes about, and until gloomy fortune shows us in our dejection how to deal with the pain. For it is a difficult thing to lay aside a great love suddenly.

46Are we the reason for your flight? Does a weariness for your fatherland take you away? By our tears, by the parents who gave you birth, if prayers still have a place, and if God does not still block his ears, hold off your flight, and do not relinquish the sweet recesses of your fatherland. The youths are still here who can strive with you on the track, and with swift feet, and who can compete with you with javelin, and in a wrestling match. Or should courage-testing dangers entice, there are those here who will accompany you to besiege the woods with a pack of dogs, and, in their pursuit, besiege the lairs of wild beasts with snares in their encircling trap. Also there are those who will follow you through the mountains, and the trackless paths, in the hunt, and will wear out the valleys and groves with you. Finally there are those who have been accustomed to enjoy the Muses together with you, and to partake with you in a common love for learning. The lap of any horse is quicker when it is contested; only then does its pace rise, as its competitive spirit comes to the fore.

61Yet if both unconquered nations had, at the time, been compelled to be united in an eternal pact under equal laws, we have now come to learn the harsh lessons and see the commencement of this pact: this union has been created unequally, and we see that the neighbours alone have common joys, while we wretches have been left only to grieve and lament. If they would at least refuse the sight of one lord each to both of us, both court access and a royal presence, and they only wish to keep their previous share, they ought not to have begrudged us our favoured share.

71That eye of the world, which, through the fixed laws of its light, while making shine the vast sea all over the earth, gazes upon The Great Bear and the icy Wain c during one and the same year,

[243]

and then turns back again towards the rainy south: equally for both poles, and unwaveringly it never abandons the middle path, where the zodiac turns on its slanting axis. And no more light is apportioned to one part over the other, and it measures out its life-giving heat with a just scale. Phoebus distributes equally to both what is right.

80Yet if the orders of your great father spur you on, and put an end to your delay, and it is no longer right to hold out, at least we can fill up your footsteps with an ourpouring of our tears, and show our dishevelled hair to you as you leave, and let flow weeping from our eyes in memory of our lord. Adonis implored by Venus will not be turned by tears, d and an unhappy love is never sated by tears.

87At least remember to report these laments to your father's ears. For as a boy he planted his first footsteps on their even course here, and here he also devoted his youth to Athena's pursuits, and filled up the wide globe with genuine praise. Here, after his later years arrived, the Learned Sister led him into the Aonian mountains, and he drew Castilian water from its source. e In return for so many meritorious deeds, your nourishing fatherland asks for one thing: may you deem it worthy to visit your former home one day in the future. When you return, and when you first quit the rainy south, every thing on earth will happily run to meet their Phoebus upon his journey back. Please promise a swift return, and no long delay. And there is no problem if, through your love for your fatherland, you should not tell the truth in this regard. Ah what wretches are those who have been permitted to be blessed so often! For we do not know what's good until we lament its loss!

102If, however, not remembering the past he refuses to admit these arguments into his unyielding ears, and, less kindly than a fierce foe, to accede to our sentiment, if he should dismiss our pleas as sport for the gentle winds, please often take his place with your great beauty. Such a people's object of desire that is shared by two! You who matches the gods in beauty, and who matches your beauty to your virtues. You take precedence over all other sceptre-bearing kings in nobility. Only your father precedes you, o living image of your father - and no truer likeness will be returned by any mirror! We will see in the face of one the face of the other, and the father's splendour will shine forth in his unmistakable offspring.

[244]

Or perhaps forgetfulness will also fade your love for us? And you will trade an aversion for your fatherland for some new riches? Every unfortunate person is a fearful type, who changes their view all the time: their fear creates a reality that they think could happen.

117Perhaps, after you arrive there, they will profusely offer forth many reasons that could turn your mind as it thinks of returning home: 'how barbarous is your country: the windy mountains, the cities without surrounding walls, its crude houses, and the disagreeable manners of its people!' The result will be that the land that gave you birth will seem a paltry remote place. Please pass on all this advice as sport for the rapid winds. Of course, will this land, which brought forth such men as you, both father and son, in whose heart so many native jewels shine, will this land deservedly be called barbarous? But let me stop talking about the father, whom now new glory bears aloft on golden wings, through the walls of the great universe: who would compare themselves to you, as a boy at the same age? Whether anyone conducts discussion in the Latin language, or if a letter is composed in Roman words, who is better with a pen, who is more learned in Latin speech either, whether they be equal, or perhaps have even doubled, your years? Just as the boy has old age's wisdom, so he has a pleasing gravity in speech, and a manner of speaking to beguile astonished ears. And although arms should be feared in one's early years, Nature herself pours out the vibrant seeds of her own genius, and instils gentle manners in your noble blood. Unmoved by steel, that man reaches for gleaming swords with hostile intent, to draw out the savage snakes upon the fearful shield of Athena with her resounding arms. There is no one better to rouse Mars' spirit, whether brandishing the lance with Macedonian skill, f or should he draw out his sword, or spears tipped with shining metal. If anyone brags about their spear, may you declare that you are a pupil of Chiron, g learned in conducting every art of war at close hand. O how often, and with how many prayers, has your heart burned to hear the longed-for bugle's call, and the thunderbolts of war, the machines of furious Mars, which fire out against city walls! Indeed I believe, and it is not a vain hope, that Vulcan even now prepares a sword, and sweating profusely he manages the task upon the anvil,

[245]

Brontes also hastily makes the helmet, Pyragmon the chainmail, and Steropes the shield - the armour of great Achilles! h Clearly, as the brilliance of your noble speech is most worthy, and your manly spirit, and your warlike courage in fierce battle, these manifest signs now promise that you will be a leader. As often as the wounds of furious Mars urge one to rise up in righteous anger with avenging punitive action, as the scythe lays low the thick crop with a fresh blade, just so may he strike a thunderous blow against the enemy in anger. Will a barbarous country ever produce these heavenly seeds of a great intellect, I ask you, and such spirits?

163But (they will tell you), the land is short of grain, and is hostile to the farmer; and neither is it good for the flocks, nor the sort of place that produces Milesian wool, i and it is not a land ennobled with yellow precious metals. Whenever there is a contest in riches, we happily surrender. Neither the minds of man, nor his concerns are unburdened by wealth, no one has become a better person through wealth; yet one can outstrip kings, and their friends, under the shelter of poverty. We also have wealth and it does not dissatisfy us. No excess exists here, and may it long remain so. Poverty is believed to produce heroes. A golden canopy does not suppress fierce summer and deflect the heat, nor have chariots been roused to lighten the burdens of travel, and peform the feet's duty on a convenient couch. Excess has no profit for man, as every nation perishes through what it imports from the rest of the world, as it comes borne across the sea; too much wealth dulls the wits of men. Our land is self-sufficient, and is blessed by Ceres, and rich in snow-white flocks - and, even though high mountains run up in all directions, and our men work their slopes with the plough, the flocks graze upon the harshest slopes. Through man's efforts every part of the land has learned to yield, even where it lies open and exposes its abundance of precious golden metals. The Latin Muses hold our hearts - hearts that are also at home amid the Greek Muses. Here that great throng of men rises up each year, and a new generation grows to restore the previous. This reality demoralised the victorious Edwards, father, son, and grandson, j at the peak of their martial power, stunned by the novelty of their misfortune, and uncertain of what would come next:

[246]

those men whom Bellona nourished with so many triumphs, while they raged against us in arms, and, with Mars at their back, while they enlisted innumerable tribes with them into battle. But they saw that they were vying against a land experienced in battle, and fighting against an immortal race of men. There was not so much blood that could be shed by a single army; indeed they thought that such a throng of young men, restored each year, and as many recruits ready for war, were armies reborn and sprung from the fruitful land, or a crop of Myrmidons, k or they believed that dragons' teeth had grown in the well-sown fields through the wiles of Colchian potions l - just as if arm-bearing furrows blossomed with soldiers, and the buds bore their arms against their own sower. Just so was it a source of grief to Hercules that the Hydra was restored by its innumerable previous deaths, m and was made fertile from its own demises, and that it regained its strength twice over, just as though it derived its spirit and might from the sword itself. Without doubt it was fated that these nations must one day be joined not by the efforts of grim Mars, but by a friendly pact. But you who were born for two under a happy constellation here, and in the other realm will outgrow your early years, should you see fit, should you be able (we will support you in whatever way we can), should make sure that your Britain is not the only one to know you: whatever power your descent, your hope, the public will has promised you, they will see that it has been all well-earned. How did it come to pass that the high palaces of heaven should be governed by Jupiter, why the whole world, from the Ganges to Cadiz, yielded to someone, whom, for all that, Minos' Crete enclosed in its tiny kingdom, and interred upon his death in a little urn? n His virtue alone bestowed the heaven and earth upon him, and his former kingdoms had been the rewards for his virtue alone. For truly only virtue completely provides a just kingdom. Indolence, as it grows upon a soft couch, does not produce this, nor do the riches that corrupt the noble mind. But see that you take the path on flighted wing to where your virtue summons you, and ascend to the heights on your great wings; and while still at a tender age, may you strike the gentle temples of virtue with your hand: glory is the torch of an honest mind,

[247]

let it thus lead you (if you can happily accustom yourself to its direction), and in the end it will place you upon the heights of fame.

232Meanwhile accustom your constitution to harsh toil, and fortify your heart to endure war; and so that a robust power co-exists with a raw strength in you, begin passing restless nights under a cold sky, as you learn to endure hunger, to avoid the easy life, to scale mountains while hunting, to tame rivers by swimming, and be content to eat your food off captured shields: for reputation comes not without a little martial toil.

240But, while your early years mature with their new manners, take care that excess, having bought the facade of honour's empty shape, does not soften you at a carefee court (a reputation for excess does not compliment or enoble your fame). Just as the magnetic stone attracts metal with its hidden power, so riches beguile weak minds, and lead them far astray from real nobility. May you overthrow the court of Circe, daughter of the Sun, before your eyes, which has howled with hideous wolves and barked with Molossian dogs, o and may indolent pleasure make the men assume the aspect of pigs, or whatever is at all more contemptible than pigs. Such memorials has listless excess left for us.

252Take care that your love of the Muses ever accompanies you into old age, and do not be ashamed to have worshipped Helicon in your early youth. It will be a rare person about whom ancient legend and books have spoken, whom the learned Sisters have not first cultivated when a youth. Hercules, a name famous in legend through the ages, while young, took in the stars and the motions of the heavens, under Atlas' direction, and support, upon which this whole globe is fixed, and it is said that he was full of Minerva's wisdom. No barking vices unsettled his mind, nor did his harsh labours defeat him, but rather the prospect of a nobler life pleased him at that time. So, while little more than a boy, he learned to anticipate both thunderstorms and hot weather en-route, and to endure the rain and defy the cold. His spoils provided food, and he was accustomed to expend all of his arrows through his bow when hunting in the high mountains - he was not accustomed to sloth or prepared meals,

[248]

nor to soothe his indolent cares on a lifeless couch. He did not have a body or mind that would wilt at any task. Whatever was produced by intense toil was most pleasing to him.

272That man Achilles, feared by all during Agamnenon's war, while still a boy in the cave of Thessalian Chiron, p is reported to have followed happily the instructions of the half-goat, as he taught him what was right, and wrong, what it was permitted to know, and what was just, or whether to devote himself to the songs of the lyre, or the doctor's arts. Often indeed he would stand to attention when censured by the shout of his stern master, and he paid due attention to the dark cloud upon his master's brow, and he never flinched when ordered to submit that unconquerable right hand, at which the very great Hector died, to the cane. But afterwards his virtue grew as he did; it alone brought him to life in the praises of Maeonian Homer.

283The great Aristotle shaped the early years of the youth from Pella, q and he lit up his entire youth with his burning torches, and filled him full of noble grace. He taught him what was right, and what not; where virtue would take one, and where error; where indolent sloth on a soft couch leads, as he instilled in him the things that must be heeded in one's early years. He had no strong desire to make his fingers glow with lively jewels, or a desire for perfumed robes, painted delicately with Phrygian skill, r for he had been taught to catch what sleep he could in the recesses of the deep woods. None the less, he could be seen to have earned that entire empire upon which the sun running over both the east and west beholds. After being convinced by the previously corrupted age, he preferred to accustom his nation's habits to arms, than to wealth. Then the glory of his sacred virtue faded, as he first became slave to his own anger, and then a willing slave to Bacchus, until, finally, he drunkenly relinquished his empire and died, and the might of the Macedonians slipped away and fell.

301Scipio, the conqueror who took the name of the Libyan race, had joined his arms to the Aonian arts: whether laying low the Punic enemy with his strong hand, or ascending the Capitol on his triumphant chariot, Ennius was at his side as his companion, s and he roused the youth with a keen love for future fame. He motivated himself, and turned his mind from the sweet allure of sloth,

[249]

and indolent cares. The rather uncouth way he wore his shirt did not overly discomfort him, nor refined meals on tables, nor bracing harshness. A reputation that was formed by hard work was much more pleasing.

311Caesar, as it was unclear whether he would be more famous in Muse or in arms, so it is clear that he had been pre-eminent in the latter, as he was first in the former, attaining both peaks, nevertheless he submitted his heart to be fixed to the Aonian Muses in his early years. Meanwhile, as he learned what was the most fertile ground for battle, which place was suited to ambush, and suited to pitched battle, which opportunity there was for camp, and where battle was joined, he approached whatever had to be done soberly, and did it. Yet if he had not distinguished himself in his youth in the fine arts, neither the seven-pronged Nile, not the Rhine, nor the Danube, nor the Ganges, nor the western Ebro would have known the sisters mastered in the Latin language's glory, nor would there have been any great reputation for Caesar's name today, even if he set a limit to the sun's fame amid the stars.

326The descendants of the house of Caesar, who were capable neither in times of peace or war, as they abandoned their duties for dissolution, left his name despised in both heaven and earth; and, as their passion, which is heedless of duty, held power, doing nothing worthy of great praise, the empire began to fall: until Trajan, who was taught by Plutarch's precepts, succeeded to the tumbling burden, and under him and his unwavering care the ancient triumphs returned to the Italians. t He ascended the high Capitol with the conquered Dacians; when laying low the Parthians most vigorously with his avenging arms he saw to it that the Tigris would be a Roman province; and then he added everything that was not yet under his dominion.

338Should precedents please you, and you have considered the accounts of a great life, and the reputations of eternal fame, follow the leaders and kings of your native land, about whom you can read, and you will be able to understand what virtue is. As your early years gently raise you up, seek from them whom wisely to avoid, and whom to imitate in virtue, and may the great glory of your ancestors fire your mind. The coming years will bring unceasing travails, and you cannot be lazy: he who stood upon the highest citadel of fame often sweated and shivered.

[250]

There is a path through the wilds, a way which is said to be impassable, of many bends, an errant way that deceives with sundry loops; its long path, punctuated by interwoven dangers, provides a difficult approach, and toils and hazards on the left and right, and here restless cares have made their lair. May you be wary of any triumph that will be procured by little effort, when the heavy burden of serious governance falls upon you, and the head of government entrusted to you. May you pay special attention during your early years to what the body politic demands, and consider what beneficial allowances to make for the lowly plebs: what routinely makes them mad, and fires them into a fierce rage. The field of virtue is by far the most honourable for a king, if he should pay attention to the health of his people, and avoid whatever harms them. May that which your shoulders are able to bear, and that which they cannot, be duly considered, lest your people bear too heavily or onerously more than is equitable, for he is well thought of who wisely distributes his own burden evenly.

364May your words have a sacred bond, and your heart be inaccessible to deceit; may you not be insensitive to kindness; and even if there is cause, may you not be harsh to anyone - unless they have given their life over to crime. Power is weak which clemency does not fortify. Do not offer a hungry ear to false rumours, nor let a lying denouncer find a pliant court. In this way fear, the nourisher of hate, rises, which is often a destructive evil, and the worst guardian of kingdoms; indeed however many people respect you, a similar amount will inspire fear in you. And those who should ever think well of you, they will not fear you. Rather you will exercise the reigns of power far better by precedent, than by chains, or any laws, if you can be like the Lord, the model of his life be yours, and if his ways, after you have learned them, can reveal his laws. If perhaps you become enraged, or immature passions rage, then make sure that you esteem your anger less than his trusty counsel. In this way the people will voluntarily adopt the ways of the Lord for themselves, they will behold in you alone what is godly and what is proper. Then probity will direct the people without the rod, and guide them to virtue without punishment, and will repay them with the benefits of a better life. May you yourself, the incorruptible judge, never cease examining those things in yourself that you seek in the lowly plebs.

[251]

Also be first to perform the toils that you have commanded others to do. May your entrusted power remove the desire for sinning, and never extend the protection of your empire to the wicked: but rather always put your faith in the trusty minds of men who have followed the law, and hearts that know the truth. Whenever other nations witness this, no matter how far away, they will voluntarily and without any compulsion submit themselves to your rule. For virtue alone is more forceful than all weapons. However, may it be your chief concern to assist the heralds thundering forth with the divine speech of the Word, and everyone who reveals the mysterious commandments of God to the people, so that you possess a vigorous virtue, and a rich understanding: and thus may you begin to warrant your glory through true piety.

399In this way the good father of the gods, who inhabits the flaming temples of the heavens, who made the heaven and the earth, has saw to it that, now great in virtue, you escape the confines of ill-will, so that you can surpass the honours of your family's ancient fame, and so that only you may move every poet to praise, and subject the greatest kingdoms by your merits alone: and may you draw servile hands to you from every quarter, and victory always frequent your camp. May the vexations of either war or peace not devour you, even if you should live for three times the age of Nestor: u rather, may all worship you as if the embodiment of living virtue.

Notes:


Original

1: Virgil, Georgics III.187. 'Doctae Sorores' standing for 'musas': see Ovid, Metamorphoses V.255, and Manilius, Astronomica II.49, for the use of this epithet for the Muses.

2: Virgil, Georgics II.484

3: A reference to King James' poem on the Battle of Lepanto. Adam King, 'Panegyris de haerediteria Iacobi VI' (d2_KinA_006), lines 98-108 provides a Latin synopsis of the poem, which also alludes to the sea strewn with the blood of the Turks. Interestingly, Henry is also mentioned in Adam King's passage (line 111).

4: Cf. Ovid, Fasti I.17

5: Virgil, Aeneid XI.824

6: Henry as the new 'Ascanius' - allusion to Virgil, Aeneid XII.168

7: Virgil, Aeneid I.8

8: 'Si, quae te genuit, talis, pulcherrime rerum': (all pre-19th century editions) Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.255

9: Misleading hypercorrection for 'letiferis'.

10: A celestial presentation of the progress of summer: Cancer is opening its arms (claws) to welcome Sirius (see next line), who is described by Virgil as the bearer of sickness to mortals (morbosque ferens mortalibus): Virgil, Aeneid X.274 - Virgil himself follows Homer here: Iliad XXII.25-32. However the presentation of summer here and its attendant termonology closely mirror that of Buchanan, De Sphaera I.405.

11: Virgil, Aeneid IV.434

12: Catullus, Carmina LXXVI.13. Craig replaces Catullus' 'difficile' with the more intense 'ardua res', while also replacing the contextually incongruant 'longum' with the qualitatively more apposite 'magnum'.

13: This line and the previous two lines see Craig rework Dido's bitter reproach to Aeneas for abandoning her. See Virgil, Aeneid IV.314-9.

14: Virgil, Aeneid IV.440

15: Martial, Epigrams XII.14.9

16: Virgil, Georgics II.471; Aeneid VII.478; Aeneid IV.121

17: Ovid, Metamorphoses III.227

18: Virgil, Aeneid XII.190-1

19: The sun. See Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.226-8

20: Cf. Gellius, Noctes Atticae XVIII.11. In the cited passage Gellius defends the republican poet Furius' use of the verb.

21: Cf. Buchanan, De Sphaera III.39; and Adam King, 'Supplementum Sphaerae' IV.403-4 (d2_KinA_008)

22: Cf. Buchanan, de Sphaera I.433; and Adam King, 'Supplementum Sphaerae' IV.219-221 (d2_KinA_008)

23: A knowing astronomical joke punning on the positional and moral double meaning of 'rectus'. See Adam King, 'Supplementum Sphaerae' IV.1-4 especially, but passim, for the positional import of 'right' and 'oblique' celestial risings: (d2_KinA_008)

24: Tears for the absent Hector: Virgil, Aeneid II.271

25: Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.75

26: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii III.39

27: See note 1 above.

28: Cf. Virgil, Aeneid IV.433

29: Virgil, Aeneid IV.428

30: Virgil, Aeneid VI.74-5

31: Ovid, Fasti II.7.37

32: Cf. Virgil, Aeneid III.255.

33: Virgil, Aeneid VI.74-5

34: Buchanan, Psalm Paraphrases 104.4

35: Claudian, De Consulatu Manlii Theodori 19-20

36: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii IV.162-4

37: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii III.74-5

38: Virgil uses the term as an epithet for the two Scipios: Aeneid VI.842.

39: Allied with the 'fulmina belli' above, the 'machina' here must be a cannon. Craig takes the term from Lucan, who uses the term in the original context to signify any mechanism that is used to attack fortifications (ballista or battering ram): Bellum Civile VI.37.

40: This line and the previous three: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii III.191-6.

41: Catullus, Carmina LXIV.354

42: Silius Italicus, Punica XV.71

43: See Virgil, Georgics III.306-7 for its proverbial association with wealth.

44: Virgil, Aeneid X.174

45: Tibullus, Elegies III.3.21

46: This and the previous line: Horace, Epistles I.10.32-3

47: A pointed reference to the state of Rome before excess spoiled her: Lucan, Bellum Civile I.165-6.

48: This and the previous line: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii IV.340-1; but Claudian himself takes the line and image from: Ovid, Fasti II.311.

49: For this line and the previous line: Lucan, Bellum Civile I.166-7; see lines 171-2 above for Craig's use of the same passage from Lucan.

50: 'Vectus' for 'victus'? Cf. Catullus, Carmina CI.1

51: Claudian, De Raptu Proserpinae III.29

52: Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.446

53: Cf. Virgil, Eclogues II.20

54: Virgil, Aeneid XI.318-9

55: Claudian, In Rufinum II.42

56: Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.127

57: Claudian, De Bello Getico 34

58: Craig's use of 'gravidus' follows Virgil, Aeneid X.87; and IV.229. The sense is of land with a close familiarity with war (filled with it), and hence a developed readiness for it.

59: Cf. Virgil, Georgics IV.208.

60: This line and the previous five are a close reworking of Claudian, De Consulatu Stilichonis I.318-324.

61: Mantuan? 'multis ac redivivam mortibus hydram'

62: Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.193

63: Lines 217-220 present another opportunity to see Craig re-using his own poetry. They are taken from d1_CraT_001 lines 261-4. For a discussion (with examples) of this aspect of Craig's poetry, see David McOmish, 'Thomas Craig and his Poetry' [http://www.dps.gla.ac.uk/features/display/?fid=ThomasCraig2#Craig2_012-back], note 12.

64: Horace, Epistles II.37

65: Silius Italicus, Punica VI.322-3

66: This passage (lines 232-242) presents the reader with a representative sample in condensed form of Craig's compositional approach, and his breadth of reading. Firstly, we again see him re-use a passage from one of his own previous poems (in this instance: d1_CraT_001 lines 298-303). Secondly, we can see Craig reworking a passage from another Latin author (in this case Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii Augusti III.43-50) by augmenting the core image with lines and images from various other works and authors (see next seven notes for the other works). Finally, this latter point highlights the extent to which Craig's poetry reveals his wide reading. Craig often shows an ability to articulate abstract concepts and ideas across the spectrum of Latin literature. In the present case he conceptualises and delineates the cultivation of 'virtue' and avoidance of 'dissolution' in context by reference to (see notes immediately above and below): Claudian (three separate works), Silius Italicus, Horace, Cicero, Calpurnius Siculus, Lucan (see note to his previous use of this passage in poem 1 above), Ovid, Virgil, George Buchanan, Poliziano, and, of course, himself.

67: This and previous line: Buchanan, Silvae IV.174-5

68: Claudian, De Bello Getico 350-1

69: Virgil, Georgics II.362

70: Craig previously used this line at: d1_CraT_001 line 299.

71: Calpurnius Siculus, Eclogues I.69. Craig previously used this line at: d1_CraT_001 line 294.

72: One of Craig's lines from a previous poem: d1_CraT_001 lines 316-8. It is a reworking of: Poliziano, Nutricia 194-5.

73: See line 178 above: Claudian, De Raptu Proserpinae III.29

74: Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.969

75: Lines 247-250: Virgil, Aeneid VII.15-20

76: Propertius, Elegies III.5.19

77: See note 1 above.

78: Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.113-4

79: Cf. 'sideraque et varios caeli cognoscere motus': Germanicus, Aratea Phaenomena 12. In the next six lines Craig plays a literary game, alluding to two of the labours of Hercules (Labour 11: tricking Atlas to get the Apples of the Hesperides and labour 12: defeating Cerberus), while using them to stand metonymically for learning (Atlas was associated with astronomical learning: Cicero, Tusculan Disputations V.8) and vice ('barking' vices). Minerva (two lines below) also represents both wisdom and the support she provided to Hercules during his labours (as patron of heroes, and Hercules' half-sister).

80: Statius, Thebaid V.15

81: Like lines 236-7 above, this phrase follows Buchanan, Silvae IV.175

82: Propertius, Elegies IV.6.55

83: Cf. Claudian, Olybrio 151-2

84: This and the previous line: Claudian, De Consulatu Honoris III.60-2.

85: Cf., Virgil, Aeneid V.371

86: Cf. Silius Italicus, Punica XI.33

87: Virgil, Georgics III.435-6

88: Virgil, Aeneid VII.100-1

89: Virgil, Aeneid VI.689

90: This and the previous line, cf., Marcellus Palingenius, Zodiacus Vitae V.432-3: '...blandumque venenum / Desidia atque animi languor non reddit inertes.'

91: Claudian, De Consulatu Manlii Theodori 16

92: This and the previous line: Virgil, Aeneid I.287-8

93: Claudian, Magnes 23

94: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii IV.60-1

95: This and the previous three lines: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii IV.317-8

96: Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.177

97: Virgil, Eclogues IV.27

98: Horace, Ars Poetica 413

99: Virgil, Aeneid VI.271. See line 351 below for more evidence of Craig's use of this passage of Virgil.

100: '...via secta...dextra laevaque...' Virgil, Georgics I.235-8

101: Virgil, Aeneid VI.274

102: Claudian, In Rufinum II.5

103: Claudian, De Consulatu Stilichonis II.70

104: Horace, Ars Poetica 39-40

105: Walter of Chatillon, Alexandreis I.342: 'Instabile est regnum quod non clementia firmat.' See Craig, d1_CraT_004 407-8, for further evidence of Craig's familiarity with Walter of Chatillon's work.

106: Claudian, De Consulatu Stilichonis II.47

107: Statius, Thebaid I.127

108: Statius, Silvae V.2.72

109: Silius Italicus, Punica XII.316

110: Virgil, Aeneid IX.97

111: This phrase ('violentior armis') and the idea are taken from: Claudian, De Consulatu Honorii VI.305-6. Craig renders the sentiment more faithfully to his source at d1_CraT_004, lines 462-3.

112: Statius, Thebaid III.556

113: The ultimate inspiration for this image of the fiery temples of the heavens is surely Lucretius, De Rerum Natura I.1063, and I.73. However, Craig is once again re-using parts of his own poetry: d1_CraT_001, lines 1-2.

114: Craig also uses this phrase taken from Poliziano, Nutricia 715, at d1_CraT_001, line 338.

Translation

a: In addition to writing a poem on the Battle of Lepanto (see note to Latin text), James was also an active fosterer and patron of a group of poets at his court in Scotland, and wrote a treatise on writing verse in Scots entitled Essays of a Prentise in the Divine Arte of Poesie (1584). See R.D.S. Jack, 'Castalian band (act. 1584-1603)', ODNB [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/theme/95583].

b: Arcadia: mountainous region in the central Peloponnese which (thanks to Vergil's Eclogues) became the idealized setting for pastoral poetry. Lyceum: the covered garden gymnasium next to the temple of Apollo Lyceus in Athens where Aristotle taught.

c: Great Bear: the constellation Ursa Major. Wain: Charles' Wain, also known as the Plough.

d: Adonis was a hunter of such great beauty that Persephone and Venus both fell in love with him. After he was killed by a boar, Zeus decreed he should spend part of the year with each goddess.

e: See note a above.

f: The race of Alexander the Great.

g: Chiron the centaur was the tutor of Achilles.

h: Brontes, Pyragmon and Steropes: the three cyclopes who make the arms of Aeneas under the supervision of Vulcan in Aeneid VIII.

i: Miletus: ancient Greek city on the Anatolian coast, whose wool quality was proverbial for its excellence.

j: Edward I (r.1272-1307), Edward II (r.1307-1327), and Edward III (r.1327-1377) all successively waged war against the Scots during the Wars of Independence. See also discussion in d1_CraT_002.

k: A warlike Thessalian people who followed Achilles to the siege of Troy.

l: In the competition for the Golden Fleece, Jason was forced to combat warriors who grew from dragon's teeth sown in the ground, but defeated them with the help of Medea (the Colchian).

m: Slaying the Lernean Hydra, which sprouted two heads for each one that was struck off, was the first of Hercules' twelve labours.

n: See note to Latin text.

o: A form of mastiff from the Molossus region of north-west Greece.

p: See note on Chiron above.

q: Alexander the Great.

r: Phrygia, an ancient region on the western Anatolian plateau, was famed for its textiles.

s: Scipio Africanus (Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major, c.236-184BC): Roman general who defeated the Carthaginians in Spain in 206 and Hannibal in Africa in 202, and helped to secure Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean. Ennius (239-169BC) was seen as the father of Roman poetry.

t: Trajan: Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus, emperor 98-117AD, who successfully annexed Dacia as a province between 101 and 106AD. Plutarch (Lucius Mestrus (?) Plutarchus, b. before AD50, d. after 120): Greek author and biographer, who in later accounts was described as receiving 'ornamenta consularia' (decorations of consular rank) from Trajan, as well as being imperial procurator in Achaia under Hadrian.

u: King of Pylos, whose advice is sought in the Iliad by the Achaeans on account of his venerable age and wisdom.